A crime is an act against the society or a public wrong deserving punishment.
There are usually three key components to securing a conviction for a criminal
(a) guilty conduct by the defendant (actus reus);
(b) guilty state of mind of the defendant (mens rea); and
(c) absence of any valid defence.
The actus reus of an offence therefore include one or more of the
(a) an act (or maybe a failure to act) by the defendant;
(b) the existence of certain circumstances at the time of the defendant’s conduct;
(c) some consequences flowing from the defendant’s conduct.